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Copyright (C) 1988-2015 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the Invariant Sections being ‘Funding Free Software’, the Front-Cover Texts being (a) (see below), and with the Back-Cover Texts being (b) (see below). A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ‘GNU Free Documentation License’.

  1. The FSF’s Front-Cover Text is:

A GNU Manual

  1. The FSF’s Back-Cover Text is:
You have freedom to copy and modify this GNU Manual, like GNU
software. Copies published by the Free Software Foundation raise funds for GNU development.

This file documents the use of the GNU compilers.


This manual documents how to use the GNU compilers, as well as their features and incompatibilities, and how to report bugs. It corresponds to the compilers (GCC) version 6.0.0. The internals of the GNU compilers, including how to port them to new targets and some information about how to write front ends for new languages, are documented in a separate manual. See Introduction.

Funding Free Software

If you want to have more free software a few years from now, it makes sense for you to help encourage people to contribute funds for its development. The most effective approach known is to encourage commercial redistributors to donate.

Users of free software systems can boost the pace of development by encouraging for-a-fee distributors to donate part of their selling price to free software developers-the Free Software Foundation, and others.

The way to convince distributors to do this is to demand it and expect it from them. So when you compare distributors, judge them partly by how much they give to free software development. Show distributors they must compete to be the one who gives the most.

To make this approach work, you must insist on numbers that you can compare, such as, ‘We will donate ten dollars to the Frobnitz project for each disk sold.’ Don’t be satisfied with a vague promise, such as ‘A portion of the profits are donated,’ since it doesn’t give a basis for comparison.

Even a precise fraction ‘of the profits from this disk’ is not very meaningful, since creative accounting and unrelated business decisions can greatly alter what fraction of the sales price counts as profit. If the price you pay is $50, ten percent of the profit is probably less than a dollar; it might be a few cents, or nothing at all.

Some redistributors do development work themselves. This is useful too; but to keep everyone honest, you need to inquire how much they do, and what kind. Some kinds of development make much more long-term difference than others. For example, maintaining a separate version of a program contributes very little; maintaining the standard version of a program for the whole community contributes much. Easy new ports contribute little, since someone else would surely do them; difficult ports such as adding a new CPU to the GNU Compiler Collection contribute more; major new features or packages contribute the most.

By establishing the idea that supporting further development is ‘the proper thing to do’ when distributing free software for a fee, we can assure a steady flow of resources into making more free software.

Copyright (C) 1994 Free Software Foundation, Inc. Verbatim copying and redistribution of this section is permitted without royalty; alteration is not permitted.

The GNU Project and GNU/Linux

The GNU Project was launched in 1984 to develop a complete Unix-like operating system which is free software: the GNU system. (GNU is a recursive acronym for ‘GNU’s Not Unix’; it is pronounced ‘guh-NEW’.) Variants of the GNU operating system, which use the kernel Linux, are now widely used; though these systems are often referred to as ‘Linux’, they are more accurately called GNU/Linux systems.

For more information, see:

@c Set file name and title for man page. @setfilename gpl @settitle GNU General Public License @c man begin SEEALSO gfdl(7), fsf-funding(7). @c man end @c man begin COPYRIGHT Copyright @copyright{} 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed. @c man end

GNU General Public License

Version 3, 29 June 2007 .. This file is intended to be included in another file.

Copyright (C) 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed. PreambleThe GNU General Public License is a free, copyleft license for software and other kinds of works.

The licenses for most software and other practical works are designed to take away your freedom to share and change the works. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change all versions of a program-to make sure it remains free software for all its users. We, the Free Software Foundation, use the GNU General Public License for most of our software; it applies also to any other work released this way by its authors. You can apply it to your programs, too.

When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for them if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs, and that you know you can do these things.

To protect your rights, we need to prevent others from denying you these rights or asking you to surrender the rights. Therefore, you have certain responsibilities if you distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it: responsibilities to respect the freedom of others.

For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis or for a fee, you must pass on to the recipients the same freedoms that you received. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights.

Developers that use the GNU GPL protect your rights with two steps: (1) assert copyright on the software, and (2) offer you this License giving you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify it.

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The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow.


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  • Additional Terms.

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END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONSHow to Apply These Terms to Your New ProgramsIf you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.

To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the ‘copyright’ line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

``one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.``
Copyright (C) ``year`` ``name of author``

This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at
your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program.  If not, see

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:

``program`` Copyright (C) ``year`` ``name of author``
This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type :samp:`show w`.
This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
under certain conditions; type :samp:`show c` for details.

The hypothetical commands show w and show c should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course, your program’s commands might be different; for a GUI interface, you would use an ‘about box’.

You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school, if any, to sign a ‘copyright disclaimer’ for the program, if necessary. For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU GPL, see

The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. But first, please read

@c Set file name and title for man page. @setfilename gfdl @settitle GNU Free Documentation License @c man begin SEEALSO gpl(7), fsf-funding(7). @c man end @c man begin COPYRIGHT Copyright @copyright{} 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc. @uref{}

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed. @c This file is intended to be included within another document, @c hence no sectioning command or @node. @c man end

GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.3, 3 November 2008Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed. 0* PREAMBLE

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document free in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

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We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.


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    The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See

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ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:

Copyright (C)  ``year``  ``your name``.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
Free Documentation License''.

If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the ‘with...Texts.’ line with this:

with the Invariant Sections being ``list their titles``, with
the Front-Cover Texts being ``list``, and with the Back-Cover Texts
being ``list``.

If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.

Contributors to GCC

The GCC project would like to thank its many contributors. Without them the project would not have been nearly as successful as it has been. Any omissions in this list are accidental. Feel free to contact or if you have been left out or some of your contributions are not listed. Please keep this list in alphabetical order.

  • Analog Devices helped implement the support for complex data types and iterators.
  • John David Anglin for threading-related fixes and improvements to libstdc++-v3, and the HP-UX port.
  • James van Artsdalen wrote the code that makes efficient use of the Intel 80387 register stack.
  • Abramo and Roberto Bagnara for the SysV68 Motorola 3300 Delta Series port.
  • Alasdair Baird for various bug fixes.
  • Giovanni Bajo for analyzing lots of complicated C++ problem reports.
  • Peter Barada for his work to improve code generation for new ColdFire cores.
  • Gerald Baumgartner added the signature extension to the C++ front end.
  • Godmar Back for his Java improvements and encouragement.
  • Scott Bambrough for help porting the Java compiler.
  • Wolfgang Bangerth for processing tons of bug reports.
  • Jon Beniston for his Microsoft Windows port of Java and port to Lattice Mico32.
  • Daniel Berlin for better DWARF2 support, faster/better optimizations, improved alias analysis, plus migrating GCC to Bugzilla.
  • Geoff Berry for his Java object serialization work and various patches.
  • David Binderman tests weekly snapshots of GCC trunk against Fedora Rawhide for several architectures.
  • Laurynas Biveinis for memory management work and DJGPP port fixes.
  • Uros Bizjak for the implementation of x87 math built-in functions and for various middle end and i386 back end improvements and bug fixes.
  • Eric Blake for helping to make GCJ and libgcj conform to the specifications.
  • Janne Blomqvist for contributions to GNU Fortran.
  • Segher Boessenkool for various fixes.
  • Hans-J. Boehm for his collector, IA-64 libffi port, and other Java work.
  • Neil Booth for work on cpplib, lang hooks, debug hooks and other miscellaneous clean-ups.
  • Steven Bosscher for integrating the GNU Fortran front end into GCC and for contributing to the tree-ssa branch.
  • Eric Botcazou for fixing middle- and backend bugs left and right.
  • Per Bothner for his direction via the steering committee and various improvements to the infrastructure for supporting new languages. Chill front end implementation. Initial implementations of cpplib, fix-header, config.guess, libio, and past C++ library (libg++) maintainer. Dreaming up, designing and implementing much of GCJ.
  • Devon Bowen helped port GCC to the Tahoe.
  • Don Bowman for mips-vxworks contributions.
  • Dave Brolley for work on cpplib and Chill.
  • Paul Brook for work on the ARM architecture and maintaining GNU Fortran.
  • Robert Brown implemented the support for Encore 32000 systems.
  • Christian Bruel for improvements to local store elimination.
  • Herman A.J. ten Brugge for various fixes.
  • Joerg Brunsmann for Java compiler hacking and help with the GCJ FAQ.
  • Joe Buck for his direction via the steering committee from its creation to 2013.
  • Craig Burley for leadership of the G77 Fortran effort.
  • Stephan Buys for contributing Doxygen notes for libstdc++.
  • Paolo Carlini for libstdc++ work: lots of efficiency improvements to the C++ strings, streambufs and formatted I/O, hard detective work on the frustrating localization issues, and keeping up with the problem reports.
  • John Carr for his alias work, SPARC hacking, infrastructure improvements, previous contributions to the steering committee, loop optimizations, etc.
  • Stephane Carrez for 68HC11 and 68HC12 ports.
  • Steve Chamberlain for support for the Renesas SH and H8 processors and the PicoJava processor, and for GCJ config fixes.
  • Glenn Chambers for help with the GCJ FAQ.
  • John-Marc Chandonia for various libgcj patches.
  • Denis Chertykov for contributing and maintaining the AVR port, the first GCC port for an 8-bit architecture.
  • Scott Christley for his Objective-C contributions.
  • Eric Christopher for his Java porting help and clean-ups.
  • Branko Cibej for more warning contributions.
  • The Classpath project for all of their merged runtime code.
  • Nick Clifton for arm, mcore, fr30, v850, m32r, msp430 rx work, --help, and other random hacking.
  • Michael Cook for libstdc++ cleanup patches to reduce warnings.
  • R. Kelley Cook for making GCC buildable from a read-only directory as well as other miscellaneous build process and documentation clean-ups.
  • Ralf Corsepius for SH testing and minor bug fixing.
  • Stan Cox for care and feeding of the x86 port and lots of behind the scenes hacking.
  • Alex Crain provided changes for the 3b1.
  • Ian Dall for major improvements to the NS32k port.
  • Paul Dale for his work to add uClinux platform support to the m68k backend.
  • Dario Dariol contributed the four varieties of sample programs that print a copy of their source.
  • Russell Davidson for fstream and stringstream fixes in libstdc++.
  • Bud Davis for work on the G77 and GNU Fortran compilers.
  • Mo DeJong for GCJ and libgcj bug fixes.
  • DJ Delorie for the DJGPP port, build and libiberty maintenance, various bug fixes, and the M32C, MeP, MSP430, and RL78 ports.
  • Arnaud Desitter for helping to debug GNU Fortran.
  • Gabriel Dos Reis for contributions to G++, contributions and maintenance of GCC diagnostics infrastructure, libstdc++-v3, including valarray<>, complex<>, maintaining the numerics library (including that pesky <limits> :-) and keeping up-to-date anything to do with numbers.
  • Ulrich Drepper for his work on glibc, testing of GCC using glibc, ISO C99 support, CFG dumping support, etc., plus support of the C++ runtime libraries including for all kinds of C interface issues, contributing and maintaining complex<>, sanity checking and disbursement, configuration architecture, libio maintenance, and early math work.
  • Francois Dumont for his work on libstdc++-v3, especially maintaining and improving debug-mode and associative and unordered containers.
  • Zdenek Dvorak for a new loop unroller and various fixes.
  • Michael Eager for his work on the Xilinx MicroBlaze port.
  • Richard Earnshaw for his ongoing work with the ARM.
  • David Edelsohn for his direction via the steering committee, ongoing work with the RS6000/PowerPC port, help cleaning up Haifa loop changes, doing the entire AIX port of libstdc++ with his bare hands, and for ensuring GCC properly keeps working on AIX.
  • Kevin Ediger for the floating point formatting of num_put::do_put in libstdc++.
  • Phil Edwards for libstdc++ work including configuration hackery, documentation maintainer, chief breaker of the web pages, the occasional iostream bug fix, and work on shared library symbol versioning.
  • Paul Eggert for random hacking all over GCC.
  • Mark Elbrecht for various DJGPP improvements, and for libstdc++ configuration support for locales and fstream-related fixes.
  • Vadim Egorov for libstdc++ fixes in strings, streambufs, and iostreams.
  • Christian Ehrhardt for dealing with bug reports.
  • Ben Elliston for his work to move the Objective-C runtime into its own subdirectory and for his work on autoconf.
  • Revital Eres for work on the PowerPC 750CL port.
  • Marc Espie for OpenBSD support.
  • Doug Evans for much of the global optimization framework, arc, m32r, and SPARC work.
  • Christopher Faylor for his work on the Cygwin port and for caring and feeding the box and saving its users tons of spam.
  • Fred Fish for BeOS support and Ada fixes.
  • Ivan Fontes Garcia for the Portuguese translation of the GCJ FAQ.
  • Peter Gerwinski for various bug fixes and the Pascal front end.
  • Kaveh R. Ghazi for his direction via the steering committee, amazing work to make -W -Wall -W* -Werror useful, and testing GCC on a plethora of platforms. Kaveh extends his gratitude to the CAIP Center at Rutgers University for providing him with computing resources to work on Free Software from the late 1980s to 2010.
  • John Gilmore for a donation to the FSF earmarked improving GNU Java.
  • Judy Goldberg for c++ contributions.
  • Torbjorn Granlund for various fixes and the c-torture testsuite, multiply- and divide-by-constant optimization, improved long long support, improved leaf function register allocation, and his direction via the steering committee.
  • Jonny Grant for improvements to collect2's --help documentation.
  • Anthony Green for his -Os contributions, the moxie port, and Java front end work.
  • Stu Grossman for gdb hacking, allowing GCJ developers to debug Java code.
  • Michael K. Gschwind contributed the port to the PDP-11.
  • Richard Biener for his ongoing middle-end contributions and bug fixes and for release management.
  • Ron Guilmette implemented the protoize and unprotoize tools, the support for Dwarf symbolic debugging information, and much of the support for System V Release 4. He has also worked heavily on the Intel 386 and 860 support.
  • Sumanth Gundapaneni for contributing the CR16 port.
  • Mostafa Hagog for Swing Modulo Scheduling (SMS) and post reload GCSE.
  • Bruno Haible for improvements in the runtime overhead for EH, new warnings and assorted bug fixes.
  • Andrew Haley for his amazing Java compiler and library efforts.
  • Chris Hanson assisted in making GCC work on HP-UX for the 9000 series 300.
  • Michael Hayes for various thankless work he’s done trying to get the c30/c40 ports functional. Lots of loop and unroll improvements and fixes.
  • Dara Hazeghi for wading through myriads of target-specific bug reports.
  • Kate Hedstrom for staking the G77 folks with an initial testsuite.
  • Richard Henderson for his ongoing SPARC, alpha, ia32, and ia64 work, loop opts, and generally fixing lots of old problems we’ve ignored for years, flow rewrite and lots of further stuff, including reviewing tons of patches.
  • Aldy Hernandez for working on the PowerPC port, SIMD support, and various fixes.
  • Nobuyuki Hikichi of Software Research Associates, Tokyo, contributed the support for the Sony NEWS machine.
  • Kazu Hirata for caring and feeding the Renesas H8/300 port and various fixes.
  • Katherine Holcomb for work on GNU Fortran.
  • Manfred Hollstein for his ongoing work to keep the m88k alive, lots of testing and bug fixing, particularly of GCC configury code.
  • Steve Holmgren for MachTen patches.
  • Mat Hostetter for work on the TILE-Gx and TILEPro ports.
  • Jan Hubicka for his x86 port improvements.
  • Falk Hueffner for working on C and optimization bug reports.
  • Bernardo Innocenti for his m68k work, including merging of ColdFire improvements and uClinux support.
  • Christian Iseli for various bug fixes.
  • Kamil Iskra for general m68k hacking.
  • Lee Iverson for random fixes and MIPS testing.
  • Balaji V. Iyer for Cilk+ development and merging.
  • Andreas Jaeger for testing and benchmarking of GCC and various bug fixes.
  • Martin Jambor for his work on inter-procedural optimizations, the switch conversion pass, and scalar replacement of aggregates.
  • Jakub Jelinek for his SPARC work and sibling call optimizations as well as lots of bug fixes and test cases, and for improving the Java build system.
  • Janis Johnson for ia64 testing and fixes, her quality improvement sidetracks, and web page maintenance.
  • Kean Johnston for SCO OpenServer support and various fixes.
  • Tim Josling for the sample language treelang based originally on Richard Kenner’s ‘toy’ language.
  • Nicolai Josuttis for additional libstdc++ documentation.
  • Klaus Kaempf for his ongoing work to make alpha-vms a viable target.
  • Steven G. Kargl for work on GNU Fortran.
  • David Kashtan of SRI adapted GCC to VMS.
  • Ryszard Kabatek for many, many libstdc++ bug fixes and optimizations of strings, especially member functions, and for auto_ptr fixes.
  • Geoffrey Keating for his ongoing work to make the PPC work for GNU/Linux and his automatic regression tester.
  • Brendan Kehoe for his ongoing work with G++ and for a lot of early work in just about every part of libstdc++.
  • Oliver M. Kellogg of Deutsche Aerospace contributed the port to the MIL-STD-1750A.
  • Richard Kenner of the New York University Ultracomputer Research Laboratory wrote the machine descriptions for the AMD 29000, the DEC Alpha, the IBM RT PC, and the IBM RS/6000 as well as the support for instruction attributes. He also made changes to better support RISC processors including changes to common subexpression elimination, strength reduction, function calling sequence handling, and condition code support, in addition to generalizing the code for frame pointer elimination and delay slot scheduling. Richard Kenner was also the head maintainer of GCC for several years.
  • Mumit Khan for various contributions to the Cygwin and Mingw32 ports and maintaining binary releases for Microsoft Windows hosts, and for massive libstdc++ porting work to Cygwin/Mingw32.
  • Robin Kirkham for cpu32 support.
  • Mark Klein for PA improvements.
  • Thomas Koenig for various bug fixes.
  • Bruce Korb for the new and improved fixincludes code.
  • Benjamin Kosnik for his G++ work and for leading the libstdc++-v3 effort.
  • Maxim Kuvyrkov for contributions to the instruction scheduler, the Android and m68k/Coldfire ports, and optimizations.
  • Charles LaBrec contributed the support for the Integrated Solutions 68020 system.
  • Asher Langton and Mike Kumbera for contributing Cray pointer support to GNU Fortran, and for other GNU Fortran improvements.
  • Jeff Law for his direction via the steering committee, coordinating the entire egcs project and GCC 2.95, rolling out snapshots and releases, handling merges from GCC2, reviewing tons of patches that might have fallen through the cracks else, and random but extensive hacking.
  • Walter Lee for work on the TILE-Gx and TILEPro ports.
  • Marc Lehmann for his direction via the steering committee and helping with analysis and improvements of x86 performance.
  • Victor Leikehman for work on GNU Fortran.
  • Ted Lemon wrote parts of the RTL reader and printer.
  • Kriang Lerdsuwanakij for C++ improvements including template as template parameter support, and many C++ fixes.
  • Warren Levy for tremendous work on libgcj (Java Runtime Library) and random work on the Java front end.
  • Alain Lichnewsky ported GCC to the MIPS CPU.
  • Oskar Liljeblad for hacking on AWT and his many Java bug reports and patches.
  • Robert Lipe for OpenServer support, new testsuites, testing, etc.
  • Chen Liqin for various S+core related fixes/improvement, and for maintaining the S+core port.
  • Weiwen Liu for testing and various bug fixes.
  • Manuel Lopez-Ibanez for improving -Wconversion and many other diagnostics fixes and improvements.
  • Dave Love for his ongoing work with the Fortran front end and runtime libraries.
  • Martin von Lowis for internal consistency checking infrastructure, various C++ improvements including namespace support, and tons of assistance with libstdc++/compiler merges.
  • H.J. Lu for his previous contributions to the steering committee, many x86 bug reports, prototype patches, and keeping the GNU/Linux ports working.
  • Greg McGary for random fixes and (someday) bounded pointers.
  • Andrew MacLeod for his ongoing work in building a real EH system, various code generation improvements, work on the global optimizer, etc.
  • Vladimir Makarov for hacking some ugly i960 problems, PowerPC hacking improvements to compile-time performance, overall knowledge and direction in the area of instruction scheduling, and design and implementation of the automaton based instruction scheduler.
  • Bob Manson for his behind the scenes work on dejagnu.
  • John Marino for contributing the DragonFly BSD port.
  • Philip Martin for lots of libstdc++ string and vector iterator fixes and improvements, and string clean up and testsuites.
  • Michael Matz for his work on dominance tree discovery, the x86-64 port, link-time optimization framework and general optimization improvements.
  • All of the Mauve project, for Java test code.
  • Bryce McKinlay for numerous GCJ and libgcj fixes and improvements.
  • Adam Megacz for his work on the Microsoft Windows port of GCJ.
  • Michael Meissner for LRS framework, ia32, m32r, v850, m88k, MIPS, powerpc, haifa, ECOFF debug support, and other assorted hacking.
  • Jason Merrill for his direction via the steering committee and leading the G++ effort.
  • Martin Michlmayr for testing GCC on several architectures using the entire Debian archive.
  • David Miller for his direction via the steering committee, lots of SPARC work, improvements in jump.c and interfacing with the Linux kernel developers.
  • Gary Miller ported GCC to Charles River Data Systems machines.
  • Alfred Minarik for libstdc++ string and ios bug fixes, and turning the entire libstdc++ testsuite namespace-compatible.
  • Mark Mitchell for his direction via the steering committee, mountains of C++ work, load/store hoisting out of loops, alias analysis improvements, ISO C restrict support, and serving as release manager from 2000 to 2011.
  • Alan Modra for various GNU/Linux bits and testing.
  • Toon Moene for his direction via the steering committee, Fortran maintenance, and his ongoing work to make us make Fortran run fast.
  • Jason Molenda for major help in the care and feeding of all the services on the (formerly machine-mail, web services, ftp services, etc etc. Doing all this work on scrap paper and the backs of envelopes would have been... difficult.
  • Catherine Moore for fixing various ugly problems we have sent her way, including the haifa bug which was killing the Alpha & PowerPC Linux kernels.
  • Mike Moreton for his various Java patches.
  • David Mosberger-Tang for various Alpha improvements, and for the initial IA-64 port.
  • Stephen Moshier contributed the floating point emulator that assists in cross-compilation and permits support for floating point numbers wider than 64 bits and for ISO C99 support.
  • Bill Moyer for his behind the scenes work on various issues.
  • Philippe De Muyter for his work on the m68k port.
  • Joseph S. Myers for his work on the PDP-11 port, format checking and ISO C99 support, and continuous emphasis on (and contributions to) documentation.
  • Nathan Myers for his work on libstdc++-v3: architecture and authorship through the first three snapshots, including implementation of locale infrastructure, string, shadow C headers, and the initial project documentation (DESIGN, CHECKLIST, and so forth). Later, more work on MT-safe string and shadow headers.
  • Felix Natter for documentation on porting libstdc++.
  • Nathanael Nerode for cleaning up the configuration/build process.
  • NeXT, Inc. donated the front end that supports the Objective-C language.
  • Hans-Peter Nilsson for the CRIS and MMIX ports, improvements to the search engine setup, various documentation fixes and other small fixes.
  • Geoff Noer for his work on getting cygwin native builds working.
  • Diego Novillo for his work on Tree SSA, OpenMP, SPEC performance tracking web pages, GIMPLE tuples, and assorted fixes.
  • David O’Brien for the FreeBSD/alpha, FreeBSD/AMD x86-64, FreeBSD/ARM, FreeBSD/PowerPC, and FreeBSD/SPARC64 ports and related infrastructure improvements.
  • Alexandre Oliva for various build infrastructure improvements, scripts and amazing testing work, including keeping libtool issues sane and happy.
  • Stefan Olsson for work on mt_alloc.
  • Melissa O’Neill for various NeXT fixes.
  • Rainer Orth for random MIPS work, including improvements to GCC’s o32 ABI support, improvements to dejagnu’s MIPS support, Java configuration clean-ups and porting work, and maintaining the IRIX, Solaris 2, and Tru64 UNIX ports.
  • Hartmut Penner for work on the s390 port.
  • Paul Petersen wrote the machine description for the Alliant FX/8.
  • Alexandre Petit-Bianco for implementing much of the Java compiler and continued Java maintainership.
  • Matthias Pfaller for major improvements to the NS32k port.
  • Gerald Pfeifer for his direction via the steering committee, pointing out lots of problems we need to solve, maintenance of the web pages, and taking care of documentation maintenance in general.
  • Andrew Pinski for processing bug reports by the dozen.
  • Ovidiu Predescu for his work on the Objective-C front end and runtime libraries.
  • Jerry Quinn for major performance improvements in C++ formatted I/O.
  • Ken Raeburn for various improvements to checker, MIPS ports and various cleanups in the compiler.
  • Rolf W. Rasmussen for hacking on AWT.
  • David Reese of Sun Microsystems contributed to the Solaris on PowerPC port.
  • Volker Reichelt for keeping up with the problem reports.
  • Joern Rennecke for maintaining the sh port, loop, regmove & reload hacking and developing and maintaining the Epiphany port.
  • Loren J. Rittle for improvements to libstdc++-v3 including the FreeBSD port, threading fixes, thread-related configury changes, critical threading documentation, and solutions to really tricky I/O problems, as well as keeping GCC properly working on FreeBSD and continuous testing.
  • Craig Rodrigues for processing tons of bug reports.
  • Ola Ronnerup for work on mt_alloc.
  • Gavin Romig-Koch for lots of behind the scenes MIPS work.
  • David Ronis inspired and encouraged Craig to rewrite the G77 documentation in texinfo format by contributing a first pass at a translation of the old g77-0.5.16/f/DOC file.
  • Ken Rose for fixes to GCC’s delay slot filling code.
  • Ira Rosen for her contributions to the auto-vectorizer.
  • Paul Rubin wrote most of the preprocessor.
  • Petur Runolfsson for major performance improvements in C++ formatted I/O and large file support in C++ filebuf.
  • Chip Salzenberg for libstdc++ patches and improvements to locales, traits, Makefiles, libio, libtool hackery, and ‘long long’ support.
  • Juha Sarlin for improvements to the H8 code generator.
  • Greg Satz assisted in making GCC work on HP-UX for the 9000 series 300.
  • Roger Sayle for improvements to constant folding and GCC’s RTL optimizers as well as for fixing numerous bugs.
  • Bradley Schatz for his work on the GCJ FAQ.
  • Peter Schauer wrote the code to allow debugging to work on the Alpha.
  • William Schelter did most of the work on the Intel 80386 support.
  • Tobias Schluter for work on GNU Fortran.
  • Bernd Schmidt for various code generation improvements and major work in the reload pass, serving as release manager for GCC 2.95.3, and work on the Blackfin and C6X ports.
  • Peter Schmid for constant testing of libstdc++-especially application testing, going above and beyond what was requested for the release criteria-and libstdc++ header file tweaks.
  • Jason Schroeder for jcf-dump patches.
  • Andreas Schwab for his work on the m68k port.
  • Lars Segerlund for work on GNU Fortran.
  • Dodji Seketeli for numerous C++ bug fixes and debug info improvements.
  • Tim Shen for major work on <regex>.
  • Joel Sherrill for his direction via the steering committee, RTEMS contributions and RTEMS testing.
  • Nathan Sidwell for many C++ fixes/improvements.
  • Jeffrey Siegal for helping RMS with the original design of GCC, some code which handles the parse tree and RTL data structures, constant folding and help with the original VAX & m68k ports.
  • Kenny Simpson for prompting libstdc++ fixes due to defect reports from the LWG (thereby keeping GCC in line with updates from the ISO).
  • Franz Sirl for his ongoing work with making the PPC port stable for GNU/Linux.
  • Andrey Slepuhin for assorted AIX hacking.
  • Trevor Smigiel for contributing the SPU port.
  • Christopher Smith did the port for Convex machines.
  • Danny Smith for his major efforts on the Mingw (and Cygwin) ports. Retired from GCC maintainership August 2010, having mentored two new maintainers into the role.
  • Randy Smith finished the Sun FPA support.
  • Ed Smith-Rowland for his continuous work on libstdc++-v3, special functions, <random>, and various improvements to C++11 features.
  • Scott Snyder for queue, iterator, istream, and string fixes and libstdc++ testsuite entries. Also for providing the patch to G77 to add rudimentary support for INTEGER*1, INTEGER*2, and LOGICAL*1.
  • Zdenek Sojka for running automated regression testing of GCC and reporting numerous bugs.
  • Jayant Sonar for contributing the CR16 port.
  • Brad Spencer for contributions to the GLIBCPP_FORCE_NEW technique.
  • Richard Stallman, for writing the original GCC and launching the GNU project.
  • Jan Stein of the Chalmers Computer Society provided support for Genix, as well as part of the 32000 machine description.
  • Nigel Stephens for various mips16 related fixes/improvements.
  • Jonathan Stone wrote the machine description for the Pyramid computer.
  • Graham Stott for various infrastructure improvements.
  • John Stracke for his Java HTTP protocol fixes.
  • Mike Stump for his Elxsi port, G++ contributions over the years and more recently his vxworks contributions
  • Jeff Sturm for Java porting help, bug fixes, and encouragement.
  • Shigeya Suzuki for this fixes for the bsdi platforms.
  • Ian Lance Taylor for the Go frontend, the initial mips16 and mips64 support, general configury hacking, fixincludes, etc.
  • Holger Teutsch provided the support for the Clipper CPU.
  • Gary Thomas for his ongoing work to make the PPC work for GNU/Linux.
  • Philipp Thomas for random bug fixes throughout the compiler
  • Jason Thorpe for thread support in libstdc++ on NetBSD.
  • Kresten Krab Thorup wrote the run time support for the Objective-C language and the fantastic Java bytecode interpreter.
  • Michael Tiemann for random bug fixes, the first instruction scheduler, initial C++ support, function integration, NS32k, SPARC and M88k machine description work, delay slot scheduling.
  • Andreas Tobler for his work porting libgcj to Darwin.
  • Teemu Torma for thread safe exception handling support.
  • Leonard Tower wrote parts of the parser, RTL generator, and RTL definitions, and of the VAX machine description.
  • Daniel Towner and Hariharan Sandanagobalane contributed and maintain the picoChip port.
  • Tom Tromey for internationalization support and for his many Java contributions and libgcj maintainership.
  • Lassi Tuura for improvements to config.guess to determine HP processor types.
  • Petter Urkedal for libstdc++ CXXFLAGS, math, and algorithms fixes.
  • Andy Vaught for the design and initial implementation of the GNU Fortran front end.
  • Brent Verner for work with the libstdc++ cshadow files and their associated configure steps.
  • Todd Vierling for contributions for NetBSD ports.
  • Jonathan Wakely for contributing libstdc++ Doxygen notes and XHTML guidance.
  • Dean Wakerley for converting the install documentation from HTML to texinfo in time for GCC 3.0.
  • Krister Walfridsson for random bug fixes.
  • Feng Wang for contributions to GNU Fortran.
  • Stephen M. Webb for time and effort on making libstdc++ shadow files work with the tricky Solaris 8+ headers, and for pushing the build-time header tree. Also, for starting and driving the <regex> effort.
  • John Wehle for various improvements for the x86 code generator, related infrastructure improvements to help x86 code generation, value range propagation and other work, WE32k port.
  • Ulrich Weigand for work on the s390 port.
  • Zack Weinberg for major work on cpplib and various other bug fixes.
  • Matt Welsh for help with Linux Threads support in GCJ.
  • Urban Widmark for help fixing
  • Mark Wielaard for new Java library code and his work integrating with Classpath.
  • Dale Wiles helped port GCC to the Tahoe.
  • Bob Wilson from Tensilica, Inc. for the Xtensa port.
  • Jim Wilson for his direction via the steering committee, tackling hard problems in various places that nobody else wanted to work on, strength reduction and other loop optimizations.
  • Paul Woegerer and Tal Agmon for the CRX port.
  • Carlo Wood for various fixes.
  • Tom Wood for work on the m88k port.
  • Chung-Ju Wu for his work on the Andes NDS32 port.
  • Canqun Yang for work on GNU Fortran.
  • Masanobu Yuhara of Fujitsu Laboratories implemented the machine description for the Tron architecture (specifically, the Gmicro).
  • Kevin Zachmann helped port GCC to the Tahoe.
  • Ayal Zaks for Swing Modulo Scheduling (SMS).
  • Xiaoqiang Zhang for work on GNU Fortran.
  • Gilles Zunino for help porting Java to Irix.

The following people are recognized for their contributions to GNAT, the Ada front end of GCC:

  • Bernard Banner
  • Romain Berrendonner
  • Geert Bosch
  • Emmanuel Briot
  • Joel Brobecker
  • Ben Brosgol
  • Vincent Celier
  • Arnaud Charlet
  • Chien Chieng
  • Cyrille Comar
  • Cyrille Crozes
  • Robert Dewar
  • Gary Dismukes
  • Robert Duff
  • Ed Falis
  • Ramon Fernandez
  • Sam Figueroa
  • Vasiliy Fofanov
  • Michael Friess
  • Franco Gasperoni
  • Ted Giering
  • Matthew Gingell
  • Laurent Guerby
  • Jerome Guitton
  • Olivier Hainque
  • Jerome Hugues
  • Hristian Kirtchev
  • Jerome Lambourg
  • Bruno Leclerc
  • Albert Lee
  • Sean McNeil
  • Javier Miranda
  • Laurent Nana
  • Pascal Obry
  • Dong-Ik Oh
  • Laurent Pautet
  • Brett Porter
  • Thomas Quinot
  • Nicolas Roche
  • Pat Rogers
  • Jose Ruiz
  • Douglas Rupp
  • Sergey Rybin
  • Gail Schenker
  • Ed Schonberg
  • Nicolas Setton
  • Samuel Tardieu

The following people are recognized for their contributions of new features, bug reports, testing and integration of classpath/libgcj for GCC version 4.1:

  • Lillian Angel for JTree implementation and lots Free Swing additions and bug fixes.
  • Wolfgang Baer for GapContent bug fixes.
  • Anthony Balkissoon for JList, Free Swing 1.5 updates and mouse event fixes, lots of Free Swing work including JTable editing.
  • Stuart Ballard for RMI constant fixes.
  • Goffredo Baroncelli for HTTPURLConnection fixes.
  • Gary Benson for MessageFormat fixes.
  • Daniel Bonniot for Serialization fixes.
  • Chris Burdess for lots of gnu.xml and http protocol fixes, StAX and DOM xml:id support.
  • Ka-Hing Cheung for TreePath and TreeSelection fixes.
  • Archie Cobbs for build fixes, VM interface updates, URLClassLoader updates.
  • Kelley Cook for build fixes.
  • Martin Cordova for Suggestions for better SocketTimeoutException.
  • David Daney for BitSet bug fixes, HttpURLConnection rewrite and improvements.
  • Thomas Fitzsimmons for lots of upgrades to the gtk+ AWT and Cairo 2D support. Lots of imageio framework additions, lots of AWT and Free Swing bug fixes.
  • Jeroen Frijters for ClassLoader and nio cleanups, serialization fixes, better Proxy support, bug fixes and IKVM integration.
  • Santiago Gala for AccessControlContext fixes.
  • Nicolas Geoffray for VMClassLoader and AccessController improvements.
  • David Gilbert for basic and metal icon and plaf support and lots of documenting, Lots of Free Swing and metal theme additions. MetalIconFactory implementation.
  • Anthony Green for MIDI framework, ALSA and DSSI providers.
  • Andrew Haley for Serialization and URLClassLoader fixes, gcj build speedups.
  • Kim Ho for JFileChooser implementation.
  • Andrew John Hughes for Locale and net fixes, URI RFC2986 updates, Serialization fixes, Properties XML support and generic branch work, VMIntegration guide update.
  • Bastiaan Huisman for TimeZone bug fixing.
  • Andreas Jaeger for mprec updates.
  • Paul Jenner for better -Werror support.
  • Ito Kazumitsu for NetworkInterface implementation and updates.
  • Roman Kennke for BoxLayout, GrayFilter and SplitPane, plus bug fixes all over. Lots of Free Swing work including styled text.
  • Simon Kitching for String cleanups and optimization suggestions.
  • Michael Koch for configuration fixes, Locale updates, bug and build fixes.
  • Guilhem Lavaux for configuration, thread and channel fixes and Kaffe integration. JCL native Pointer updates. Logger bug fixes.
  • David Lichteblau for JCL support library global/local reference cleanups.
  • Aaron Luchko for JDWP updates and documentation fixes.
  • Ziga Mahkovec for Graphics2D upgraded to Cairo 0.5 and new regex features.
  • Sven de Marothy for BMP imageio support, CSS and TextLayout fixes. GtkImage rewrite, 2D, awt, free swing and date/time fixes and implementing the Qt4 peers.
  • Casey Marshall for crypto algorithm fixes, FileChannel lock, SystemLogger and FileHandler rotate implementations, NIO support, security and policy updates.
  • Bryce McKinlay for RMI work.
  • Audrius Meskauskas for lots of Free Corba, RMI and HTML work plus testing and documenting.
  • Kalle Olavi Niemitalo for build fixes.
  • Rainer Orth for build fixes.
  • Andrew Overholt for File locking fixes.
  • Ingo Proetel for Image, Logger and URLClassLoader updates.
  • Olga Rodimina for MenuSelectionManager implementation.
  • Jan Roehrich for BasicTreeUI and JTree fixes.
  • Julian Scheid for documentation updates and gjdoc support.
  • Christian Schlichtherle for zip fixes and cleanups.
  • Robert Schuster for documentation updates and beans fixes, TreeNode enumerations and ActionCommand and various fixes, XML and URL, AWT and Free Swing bug fixes.
  • Keith Seitz for lots of JDWP work.
  • Christian Thalinger for 64-bit cleanups, Configuration and VM interface fixes and CACAO integration, fdlibm updates.
  • Gael Thomas for VMClassLoader boot packages support suggestions.
  • Andreas Tobler for Darwin and Solaris testing and fixing, Qt4 support for Darwin/OS X, Graphics2D support, gtk+ updates.
  • Dalibor Topic for better DEBUG support, build cleanups and Kaffe integration. Qt4 build infrastructure, SHA1PRNG and GdkPixbugDecoder updates.
  • Tom Tromey for Eclipse integration, generics work, lots of bug fixes and gcj integration including coordinating The Big Merge.
  • Mark Wielaard for bug fixes, packaging and release management, Clipboard implementation, system call interrupts and network timeouts and GdkPixpufDecoder fixes.

In addition to the above, all of which also contributed time and energy in testing GCC, we would like to thank the following for their contributions to testing:

  • Michael Abd-El-Malek
  • Thomas Arend
  • Bonzo Armstrong
  • Steven Ashe
  • Chris Baldwin
  • David Billinghurst
  • Jim Blandy
  • Stephane Bortzmeyer
  • Horst von Brand
  • Frank Braun
  • Rodney Brown
  • Sidney Cadot
  • Bradford Castalia
  • Robert Clark
  • Jonathan Corbet
  • Ralph Doncaster
  • Richard Emberson
  • Levente Farkas
  • Graham Fawcett
  • Mark Fernyhough
  • Robert A. French
  • Jorgen Freyh
  • Mark K. Gardner
  • Charles-Antoine Gauthier
  • Yung Shing Gene
  • David Gilbert
  • Simon Gornall
  • Fred Gray
  • John Griffin
  • Patrik Hagglund
  • Phil Hargett
  • Amancio Hasty
  • Takafumi Hayashi
  • Bryan W. Headley
  • Kevin B. Hendricks
  • Joep Jansen
  • Christian Joensson
  • Michel Kern
  • David Kidd
  • Tobias Kuipers
  • Anand Krishnaswamy
        1. Le Blanc
  • llewelly
  • Damon Love
  • Brad Lucier
  • Matthias Klose
  • Martin Knoblauch
  • Rick Lutowski
  • Jesse Macnish
  • Stefan Morrell
  • Anon A. Mous
  • Matthias Mueller
  • Pekka Nikander
  • Rick Niles
  • Jon Olson
  • Magnus Persson
  • Chris Pollard
  • Richard Polton
  • Derk Reefman
  • David Rees
  • Paul Reilly
  • Tom Reilly
  • Torsten Rueger
  • Danny Sadinoff
  • Marc Schifer
  • Erik Schnetter
  • Wayne K. Schroll
  • David Schuler
  • Vin Shelton
  • Tim Souder
  • Adam Sulmicki
  • Bill Thorson
  • George Talbot
  • Pedro A. M. Vazquez
  • Gregory Warnes
  • Ian Watson
  • David E. Young
  • And many others

And finally we’d like to thank everyone who uses the compiler, provides feedback and generally reminds us why we’re doing this work in the first place.

Option Index

GCC’s command line options are indexed here without any initial - or --. Where an option has both positive and negative forms (such as -f``option`` and -fno-``option``), relevant entries in the manual are indexed under the most appropriate form; it may sometimes be useful to look up both forms.

Keyword Index